Archives for posts with tag: Marketing Service

by Merlin Hernandez

Consumers today want a more seamless delivery interface, a more personalized and simplified process, and a valued-customer experience but most of all they want it quickly. According to a Cisco Customer Experience Report, the most important attributes in the consumer interface are access/availability of the desired product or service, knowledge and competence in delivery, and efficiency in meeting their individual needs. In this mix what a business needs to survive the far-reaching changes in the contemporary consumer culture is a more specifically customer service orientation for a more satisfied and loyal customer.

Contemporary market leaders typically have narrowed their business focus to deliver superior customer value in one of the three value disciplines – cost leadership (best prices), product leadership (highest quality), customer intimacy (most responsive service culture) – while maintaining industry standards in the other two. Companies like FedEx and Home Depot that outstrip the competition in terms of profitability tend to excel in more than one value discipline. A firm’s relative position within an industry is given by the type(s) of value discipline chosen for competitive advantage e.g. cost leadership vs customer intimacy. Dual value disciplines as the strategic focus for a service business can become the basis of sustained market leadership. But for a small business especially a start up operating in the service sector, cost and product leadership within limited resource capabilities may not be possible. There can thus be no compromise on the customer focus.

What does this say about the business of service in the SME sector? In a nutshell, a service experience that is so remarkable that it stands out from the competition. But even more important, it is burned into the memory of the customer. The service business, by its very nature, is one of fulfilling customer expectation which intrinsically entails a value discipline of customer intimacy. The emphasis is on attention to customer detail and customer service, customization, CRM efficiencies, surpassing customer expectations, timely delivery, reliability, and lifetime value. But the same can be said for a consumer product. Companies like Apple and Nike have so surpassed industry standards as to have raised customer expectations with superior products that set a higher standard which competitors are not easily able to reach. This requires intimate and detailed customer knowledge with the kind of operational flexibility that allows fast response to changing customer needs and preferences.

Small businesses are at a distinct advantage for that kind of flexibility and intimate relationships. They are not structurally distant from the customer and bogged down by multi-tiered delivery systems and processes. In factoring customer needs into the strategic mix, businesses need to identify value-creating strategies that are most appropriate. The target market remains the most influential stakeholder around which to structure a business, and customers buy value. Market leaders are adept at understanding the value drivers that motivate their customer base. And small businesses remain closer to the ground. This does not mean that there is no need for rigorous market assessment before embarking on a small business venture. But shaping the service to more closely fit customer need brands the business as customer-focused and builds customer loyalty.

Assessment of the target market, however, should present a customer that would be more interested in a best total solution that meets their needs where quality delivery is the primary consideration. A business servicing this market segment needs to be immersed in continuous delivery process innovation and improvement to both satisfy and anticipate customer needs. This would reflect the value discipline of customer intimacy which places a stronger emphasis on more esoteric and long-lasting value e.g. organic food and good health, hypo-allergenic natural cosmetics, recycled gift paper and cards, customized cooking oils or jams natural raw materials, locally grown, chemical-free, non-GMO product etc. Value here is described as relevancy and engagement in response to long term need and wider societal benefit. Strong value added strategies and deeper customer relationships might be critical for a new small business. It can bring the solid market differentiation that gives the new business the lead time for developing brand awareness and customer loyalty. This will consolidate the market presence and establish a customer base before the competition comes knocking.

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Merlin Hernandez is an entrepreneurial development and management consultant who operates mainly in the small and medium enterprise sector. For more information on this and other topics, please send enquiries to




by Merlin Hernandez


Innovation in communication technology and the Information Age have shifted the face of marketing from an emphasis on product placement to a to a heightened customer orientation. The traditional production concept of mass production and distribution, high inventories and high risk is giving way to customization and customer empowerment where the customer is seen as a partner to product development and production processes. This allows manufacturers to be more responsive to customer need, carry less inventory, and minimize surplus and waste.

The ease of Internet comparisons has led to a more savvy buyer with greater price sensitivity and much less brand loyalty. Businesses have to do much more to gain and hold market share and maintain a customer base. Companies are now finding that the old production concept of production efficiency, low cost, and mass distribution needs more service and value overlays in order to maintain competitive advantage.

This has implications for the product concept itself. While performance and innovation remain key elements to success, the idea of relationship marketing has undermined the old notion that a good product will create its own market (the selling concept). This kind of orientation presupposes an aggressive approach to placing the product in the hands of the consumer, without factoring, in any meaningful way, the consumer perspective.

Business operations today however, seek to satisfy a broad base of stakeholders – suppliers, distributers, customers, shareholders – to the benefit of more long-term relationships and more holistic strategies for maximizing profits (the marketing concept). It is based on delivery efficiencies that include product quality, performance, innovation, availability, price, service, and intangible value through added value creation. This may include a unique service culture, new uses for the product, or new technological integration and applications for expanded product usage.

The selling concept epitomizes a philosophy of selling what is made rather that making what the market needs. In the contemporary business environment, success will of necessity need to be aligned with a marketing culture that places the customer at the center. As the heightened competition inherent in globalization offers multiple options and greater capacity for comparison to consumers, businesses need to offer more than just a well-made product.

Products will need to resonate more specifically with customer need, fit into their lifestyles and aspirations, and provide some intrinsic value that extends beyond the product – enhanced social status, group leadership, luxury etc. The selling concept has shifted to more of a marketing concept which requires sound research into what customers want and need, at a price they can afford, and the most efficient methods of getting it to them. Businesses need to be market-driven with customer satisfaction as the primary focus.

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Merlin Hernandez is an entrepreneurial development and management consultant who operates mainly in the small and medium enterprise sector. For more information on this and other topics, please send enquiries to

by Merlin Hernandez

Many entrepreneurs looking to start a small business look to the service industry because of the potential to translate a knowledge base into income without a large capital outlay as well as the ease of need identification. Services, however, pose unique challenges to marketers because the dominant factor is people not product and each interaction with the service is important to maintaining delivery levels and building the brand. Customer expectations regarding managing and maintaining service quality are critical defining factors. But regardless of the size of the business, the role of employee satisfaction in the quality of delivery can make or break the business if not given serious attention.

Employees are the face of a business and charged with the responsibility for a high level of customer satisfaction. They need to have strong buy-in to the organization to preserve its interests in service quality in order to maintain cost efficiencies and perhaps a pricing edge. High job satisfaction equates with positive representation of company interests. Tying business goals into the employee’s personal interests maintains a high level of employee engagement for sustained commitment. An employee who believes in the organization and its products builds trust and fosters customer loyalty.

Marketing a service product is challenged by the unique characteristics of services which are influenced by four basic considerations to the service marketing mix. It is important for marketers to have a grasp of these factors and see them as advantages rather than stumbling blocks. Services are intangible i.e. there is no physical deliverable that changes hands. Pricing is difficult due to the elusive nature of component costing and marketers often determine prices by comparison with other providers in a similar field. This inherently juxtaposes competitors, and throws the quality of the service more sharply into focus making price a key point of differentiation. But price is often of secondary importance to the quality of the personal interaction consumers have with service personnel.

The service product only exists within the provider/consumer relationship – it has no shelf life and cannot be inventoried. This makes the customer relationship the sole engine that drives the business. The service provider is therefore inseparable from the service itself but so is the consumer. For marketing, the fact that producer, product, and client are so closely intertwined would be an advantage to building product quality according to client need, making customer satisfaction an integral component of the service. Employees form part of the service product e.g. great food poorly served is a bad dining experience – a law office with an unprofessional assistant influences expectations about the quality of advocacy – the pest control service person who does not observe the basic courtesies ensures that his company does not receive a call back.

Each client brings a new dynamic with different expectations and satisfaction index that will not necessarily transfer to another client which makes the service heterogeneous. There may be needs that fit into the basic service offering but with some preference differentials. Furthermore each experience of the service will be different. Understanding this dimension of heterogeneity brings the opportunity to make the service unique each time, add to the quality of delivery, and appeal to a wider customer base.

Marketers need close monitoring of individual customer interests in the planning phase to maintain a high level of delivery and remain competitive. Standardization in services marketing would be necessary to establish rigorous procedures for some measure of uniformity to the customer experience and brand identity. But this needs to be done with the recognition that the heterogeneity factor would demand constant adjustments and varying of methods to accommodate changing customer tastes, customer preferences, and new trends. Employees are better able to provide the level of feedback necessary for sustained customer satisfaction.

Like many tangible goods, services can also be described as perishable since each design and delivery is unique unto itself, finite, and cannot be sold again. This provides the opportunity to market a “new” product each time the service is offered whether a CPA provides annual financial statements, a nutritionist creates a new diet plan or a consultant does the feasibility for a new venture. Customer need will define the service, with past experience feeding into innovation, modification and improvement. It does mean that the service provider often has one chance to get it right.

Employees tend to have heightened knowledge of customer preferences and are central to managing service quality and customer satisfaction. Employee engagement can be facilitated through a combination of base pay and long-term incentives which enhances an employee’s equity and is a measure of the level of ownership and satisfaction an employee experiences in a job. Training and tangible benefits and rewards like bonuses tied to the attainment of strategic objectives, skills enhancement, mentoring, and opportunities for promotions and increasing autonomy go a long way to keep morale and staff commitment high. With reduced turnover, there would be long term benefits like deeper customer relationships and a stronger feedback loop for greater service refinement and targeted delivery.

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 Merlin Hernandez is an entrepreneurial development and management consultant who operates mainly in the small and medium enterprise sector. For more information on this topic, please send enquiries to